In Mexico, traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are an essential resource for health care, especially in small rural communities where they attend approximately 45% of all deliveries. Both rural and urban women seek care with the TBAs because, amongst other things, they share the same cultural codes. In this study, qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyze the concepts, resources, and process of care during birth in rural areas of the state of Morelos. Results show that the socio-economic characteristics of the TBAs are similar to those of the patients, that they share the same precarious living conditions and the resources to which they have access for providing care during births. When choosing a TBA as a health care provider, both the economic aspect and the importance of a shared symbolism come into play. We observed advantages in some of the traditional practices which should be incorporated into the medical system, for example, protection through the massage of the perineum at the moment of expulsion. Nevertheless, there are inadequacies for which the implementation of training programs is fundamental, before articulate primary care programs using the TBAs can be promoted.